Antarctica: Exploring the Extreme: 400 Years of Adventure by Marilyn J. Landis, Roger Garaudy

By Marilyn J. Landis, Roger Garaudy

The risk and pleasure of Antarctic exploration are unrivaled within the annals of experience commute. Antarctica: Exploring the intense surveys 4 centuries and forty expeditions to Antarctica, recounting, frequently within the explorers' personal phrases, the wonders and the catastrophes they encountered. fantastic attractions, hair-raising escapes, and macabre deaths from storms and scurvy attended Ferdinand Magellan's 1520 passage during the southern straits and Captain John Biscoe's 1830 Antarctic circumnavigation. Nineteenth-century sealing and whaling expeditions from world wide are chronicled, and Ernest Shackleton's, Roald Amundsen's, and Robert Scott's anguishing trials of physique and spirit of their separate struggles to arrive the South Pole early within the twentieth century are distinctive. a last part describes Antarctica at the present time, detailing the flora and fauna and geology of a sector that's drawing a growing number of viewers who, just like the adventurers prior to them, are desirous about the isolation, attractiveness, and problem of the continent.

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Cook searched for the lost ship, but by November 27 he could wait no longer and sailed south. Ten days later the Resolution was exactly 180 degrees opposite London. ” By Christmas 168 ice islands surrounded the Resolution, but the men were “cheerful over their grog,” joking about how “they would certainly die happy and content on an ice island, with some rescued keg of brandy in their arms,” wrote Sparrman, the botanist. Early on the morning of January 30, 1774, a vivid white band of light stretched across the horizon.

Alexander Dalrymple had suspected that New Zealand was the tip of his massive undiscovered paradise. Cook’s mission was to prove him right or wrong. After weeks of arduous sailing through a good chunk of Dalrymple’s theoretical continent, Cook reached 40° south latitude in September. Several weeks later he sighted the mountains of New Zealand. From October 1769 to April 1770 Cook surveyed nearly twenty-five hundred miles of New Zealand’s unknown coasts, circumnavigating both islands. At that point Cook could have returned to England, but he decided to sail west over the Tasman Sea to explore New Holland (Australia).

Only the iron try-pots, dilapidated huts, and wind-scoured seal bones remained on the silent shores. The South Shetlands and Antarctic Peninsula Revealed After the War of 1812, the price for sealskins skyrocketed in Europe. Where millions of fur seals had once crowded the shores of the Falklands, South Georgia, Tierra del Fuego, Macquarie, and Campbell Islands, only a fraction returned to their breeding grounds by 1819. The search for new territories escalated. Early in 1819, a British merchant captain named William Smith agreed to carry a cargo of mining equipment from Montevideo (near Buenos Aires) to Valparaiso, Chile.

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