By Peter Gevorkian
Design High-Performance replacement power structures for Buildings
A accomplished reference for architects and engineers, this GreenSource publication presents sensible layout and set up directions for one of the most commercially workable substitute strength applied sciences. development fabrics, procedure deployment, general installations, and environmental effect are covered.
Alternative power structures in construction Design contains details on LEED layout, strength conservation, and solar energy financing and go back on funding. energy buy agreements (PPAs) and nationwide and foreign carbon cap and exchange also are mentioned. precious appendices include particular layout facts tables and authorized gear listings.
Alternative power structures in construction Design covers:
- Solar strength process physics and technologies
- California sunlight initiative program
- Energy conservation
- Passive heating sunlight technologies
- Fuel telephone technology
- Wind power technologies
- Ocean power technologies
- Hydroelectric and micro-hydro turbine power
- Geothermal energy
- Biofuel, biogas, and thermal depolymerization technologies
- Fission- and fusion-type nuclear power
- Air pollutants abatement
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Extra resources for Alternative Energy Systems in Building Design
These electrons are attracted toward a positively charged plate, thereby giving rise to a photoelectric current. Einstein explained the observed phenomenon by a contemporary theory of quantized energy levels, which was developed previously by Max Planck. The theory described light as being made up of miniscule bundles of energy called photons. Photons impinging on metals or semiconductors knock electrons off atoms. In the 1930s, these theorems led to a new discipline in physics called quantum mechanics, which consequently led to the discovery of transistors in the 1950s and to the development of semiconductor electronics.
MONOCRYSTALLINE AND POLYCRYSTALLINE SILICON CELLS The heart of most monocrystalline and polycrystalline PV solar cells is a crystalline silicon semiconductor. This semiconductor is manufactured by a silicon puriﬁcation process, ingot fabrication, wafer slicing, etching, and doping, which ﬁnally forms a PNP junction that traps photons. This results in the release of electrons within the junction barrier, thereby creating a current ﬂow. SOLAR CELL MANUFACTURING AND PACKAGING TECHNOLOGIES 31 The manufacture of a solar PV cell in itself is only one part of the process of manufacturing a whole solar panel product.
To reduce silicon costs, at present, the industrial trend is to minimize the wafer thickness from 300 to 180 μm. It should be noted that the process of ingot slicing results in 30 percent wasted material. To minimize this material waste, General Electric is currently developing a technology to cast wafers from silicon powder. Cast wafers thus far have proven to be somewhat thicker and less efﬁcient than the conventional sliced silicon wafers. However, they can be manufactured faster and avoid the 30 percent waste produced by wafer sawing.