Alignment Technologies and Applications of Liquid Crystal by Masanori Sakamoto

By Masanori Sakamoto

Alignment phenomena are attribute of liquid crystalline fabrics, and realizing them is seriously vital in knowing the fundamental gains and behaviour of liquid crystals and the functionality of Liquid Crystal units (LCDs). additionally, in liquid crystal display creation traces, the alignment strategy is of functional significance. Alignment applied sciences and purposes of Liquid Crystal units demonstrates either the elemental and useful facets of alignment phenomena in liquid crystals. The actual foundation of alignment phenomena is first brought with the intention to reduction the certainty of some of the actual phenomena saw within the interface among liquid crystalline fabrics and alignment layer surfaces. equipment for the characterization of surfaces, which set off the alignment phenomena, and of the alignment layer itself are brought. those equipment are invaluable for the learn of liquid crystalline fabrics and units in educational study in addition to in undefined. within the sensible sections, the alignment tools utilized in the liquid crystal display construction traces are brought with numerous different trials for the alignment applied sciences. liquid crystal display performances also are mentioned on the subject of alignment phenomena.The authors have a variety of adventure in either educational learn and in undefined. This e-book could be of curiosity to researchers and engineers operating within the liquid crystal display undefined, and for physics and chemistry researchers learning liquid crystalline fabrics.

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By using this equation, we can calculate the relationship between the groove frequency and the anchoring energy, which is shown in Fig. 24. 100 10–1 10–2 10–3 1 × 10–4 1 × 10–5 10–6 10–7 1E-9 1E-8 1E-7 Groove cycle [m] Fig. 24 Azimuthal anchoring energy as a function of the groove frequency. Calculated based on the elastic energy. © 2005 Kohki Takatoh, Masaki Hasegawa, Mitsuhiro Koden, Nobuyuki Itoh, Ray Hasegawa and Masanori Sakamoto Rubbing Technologies: Mechanisms and Applications 31 Here we assume the depth of the groove is 1 nm.

The left side is the alignment model when there are no electric fields. The right side is that when the electric field is applied to the LC cell. When the electric field is applied to the LC cell, the disclination lines extend asymmetrically to the rubbing direction on the glass substrates because of the pretilt angle of the LC molecules. 2 Characteristics of the rubbing process It has been explained quite often in papers and books related to LCDs that rubbing has many problems, such as the generation of static electricity and dust.

1. Voltage holding ratio The applied voltage on a pixel is refreshed at 60 Hz for normal TFT-driven LCD panels. 7 msec, like a capacitor. 3 Electrical characteristics of alignment materials and their related display characteristics Characteristics Related display characteristics Description Voltage holding ratio Flicker Residual DC voltage Image sticking Common voltage shift Flicker Image sticking time Image sticking Voltage retention ratio for 16 msec after charging the electrode for 20 msec. Residual voltage after DC voltage is applied and removed.

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