By Frajzyngier, Zygmunt
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Additional resources for A Grammar of Hdi
Eguchi 1971 does not make a distinction between palatal and non-palatal voiced and voiceless affricates, and represents them all as j and c respectively. 3. Velar consonants There is a contrast between velar voiced and voiceless stops: (5) kä ki'yä kum 'sequential marker* 'small' 'want5 gä 'preposition' gigd'ä 'mix' gu 'goaf The labialized velar [kw] occurs in both word-initial and word-final position. In the latter position it is in contrast with the velar stop [k]: Word initial: 14 2 Phonology (6) k kä ki 'complementizer' 'how' kw kwä kwitikw kwälä 'calabash' 'small' 'lack, fail' ghätäläkw teekw pitsäkw turtukw kitikw 'chicken' One' 'hoe' 'alone' 'small' Word final (7) mtäk gucfuk väzäk täkäzäk 'bush' 'together5 'rooster5 'man's leather garment' We analyze the labialized velar as the result of high back vowel reduction in word-final position.
The vowel is inserted in the first place where the violation of the syllabic structure oc- 30 2 Phonology curs. ' -> [kligidaghä] water -> [kligixa] If the syllable does not have its own tone, the tone of the epenthetic vowel the same as the tone of the source from which the vowel is copied (cf. 4 below): (56) b-d-i-d-f-ba build-ALL -AWAY -1 SG-UP-build -> [bididifbä] 'he built me [a wall]' The epenthetic vowel is a if the vowel in the next syllable is a: (57) mä kl-a-d-a-f-ka -» [mäklädäfkä] PROH take-EP-ALL-PVG-UP-2SG 'do not take it up there' If the tone position is the last position in the word, that is, if there is no following syllable in the same word, the epenthetic vowel is schwa.
There are no word-initial voiceless clusters: *xs, *sx, */x. There are instances of fx in intervocalic position as a result of the combination of two morphemes: xla-f-xl-i' I gathered up'. The absence of word-initial voiceless clusters is explained by the principle of the maximalization of differentiation within a cluster. The word-initial position represents the underlying form of the morpheme, where the maximalization of differentiation operates, while word-medial clusters may represent different morphemes and are not subject to the maximalization of differentiation principle.