Travel & Tourism

Course structure

Characteristics of World Destinations

  • Main topics of study:Introduction to the Geography of Tourism:
    • Leisure, Recreation & Tourism
    • Geography & Tourism
    • Forms of Tourism

    The Geography of Demand for Tourism:

    • Leisure, Recreation & Tourism – A Basic Human Right?
    • The Demand for Tourism – Concepts & Definitions
    • Effective Demand
    • Suppressed Demand

    The Geography of Resources for Tourism:

    • Introduction
    • Resources for Tourism
    • Tourism Resources at the World Scale
    • Tourism Resources at the National Scale
    • Tourism Resources at the Local Scale

    Climate & Tourism:

    • Introduction
    • The World Climate Scene
    • Climate Elements & Tourism
    • World Climate
    • World Climate Zones

    The Geography of Transport for Travel & Tourism:

    • Introduction
    • Principles of Interaction
    • The Elements of Transport
    • Transport Costs & Pricing
    • Transport Modes, Routes & Networks
    • Air Transport
    • Surface Transport

    Introduction to the Geography of Europe:

    • Introduction
    • Physical Features
    • Cultural Features
    • Tourism Demand
    • Supply of Tourism
    • The Organisation of Tourism in Europe

    Introduction to the Geography of Britain:

    • Introduction
    • The Physical Setting of Tourism
    • Change in Postwar British Society
    • Demand for Tourism in British Form
    • British Resident’s Demand for Tourism
    • The Supply of Tourism in Britain

    The Tourism Geography of England & the Channel Islands:

    • The South
    • The South-West
    • East Anglia
    • The Midlands
    • The North
    • The Offshore Islands

    The Tourism Geography of Scotland, Wales & The Isle of Man:

    • Scotland
    • Wales

    The Tourism Geography of Ireland:

    • An Introduction
    • The Republic of Ireland
    • Northern Ireland

    Scandinavia:

    • Introduction
    • Denmark
    • Norway
    • Sweden
    • Finland
    • Iceland

    The Benelux Countries:

    • Introduction
    • The Netherlands
    • Belgium
    • Luxembourg

    Central Europe:

    • Introduction
    • Austria
    • Switzerland
    • Germany

    France:

    • Introduction
    • The Demand for Tourism in France
    • The Supply of Tourism in France
    • Tourism Organisation in France
    • Tourist Regions in France

    Spain & Portugal:

    • Introduction
    • Spain
    • Gibraltar
    • Portugal

    Italy:

    • Introduction
    • The Organisation & Supply of Tourism
    • Tourism Demand
    • Tourism Attractions & Resources

    Malta, Greece & Cyprus:

    • Introduction
    • Malta
    • Greece
    • Cyprus

    Eastern Europe & The CIS:

    • Introduction
    • Tourism Resources of Eastern Europe
    • The Czech Republic
    • Slovakia (The Slovak Republic)
    • Hungary
    • Poland
    • The Baltic States
    • The Balkan Countries
    • The Republics of the Former Yugoslavia
    • Albania
    • The Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS)

    The Middle East:

    • Introduction
    • Egypt
    • Israel
    • Jordan
    • Syria
    • Lebanon
    • Turkey
    • The Arbanian Peninsula
    • Iran & Iraq

    Africa & The Islands of the Indian Ocean:

    • Introduction
    • North Africa
    • East Africa
    • Southern Africa
    • The Islands of the Western Indian Ocean
    • West Africa
    • Central Africa
    • The Atlantic Islands

    South Asia:

    • Introduction
    • India
    • Pakistan
    • Bangladesh
    • Afghanistan
    • The Maldives
    • Sri Lanka
    • Nepal
    • Bhutan

    East Asia:

    • Introduction
    • South East Asia
    • The Far East

    North America:

    • Introduction
    • The United States
    • The Demand for Tourism
    • The Supply of Resources
    • Transport
    • Accommodation
    • The Regional Setting for Tourism
    • Canada
    • Tourism Resources
    • Transport
    • The Regional Setting for Tourism
    • Greenland (Kalaallit Nunaat)

    Latin America & The Caribbean:

    • Introduction
    • The Caribbean Islands
    • Mexico
    • Central America
    • South America

    Australasia:

    • Introduction
    • Australia
    • New Zealand
    • The Pacific Islands
    • Antarctica

      Fundamentals of the Hotel & Catering Industry

      Main topics of study:Staying Away from Home:

      • The Importance of Hotels
      • Travel & Hotels
      • Two Centuries of Hotel-keeping
      • Hotels in the Total Accommodation Market
      • Hotel Location
      • Types of Hotels

      Hotel Products & Markets:

      • The Hotel as a Total Market Concept
      • Hotel Facilities & Services as Products
      • Hotel Accommodation Markets
      • Hotel Catering Markets
      • Hotel Demand Generating Sources
      • Hotel Market Areas
      • Hotel Market Segmentation
      • Buying & Paying for Hotel Services
      • Hotel Marketing Orientation

      Hotel Policies, Philosophies & Strategies:

      • Objectives & Policies
      • General & Sectional Policies
      • Policy Formulation, Communication & Review
      • Hotel Philosophies
      • Hotel Plans & Strategies
      • The Framework of Hotel Management

      Rooms & Beds:

      • Room Sales
      • Guest Accounts
      • Mail & Other Guest Services
      • Uniformed Services
      • Hotel Housekeeping
      • Organisation & Staffing
      • Accounting & Control

      Food & Drink:

      • The Food Cycle
      • The Beverage Cycle
      • Hotel Restaurants
      • Hotel Bars
      • Room Service
      • Functions
      • Food & Beverage Support Services
      • Organisation & Staffing
      • Accounting & Control

      Miscellaneous Guest Services:

      • Guest Telephones
      • Guest Laundry
      • Rentals & Concessions – Other Income
      • Accounting & Control

      Hotel Organisation:

      • Rooms
      • Food & Beverages
      • Miscellaneous Guest Services
      • Hotel Support Services
      • The Management Structure
      • Organisational Structure of a Large Hotel
      • Accounting & Control

      Hotel Staffing:

      • Determinants of Hotel Staffing
      • Numbers & Payroll
      • Hotel Products & Staffing
      • Organisation of the Personnel Function
      • Organisation of Training
      • Functions of the Training Division

      Productivity in Hotels:

      • Measures of Labour Productivity
      • Physical Measures
      • Financial Measures – Sales & Payroll
      • Physical/Financial Measures – Sales Per Employee
      • Productivity Measures – Value Added Approach
      • Some Ways to Higher Productivity
      • Productivity Standards
      • Computers in Hotels

      Marketing:

      • From Product to Sales to Marketing
      • The Marketing Concept
      • Special Features of Hotel Marketing
      • The Marketing Cycle
      • Marketing Resources
      • Hotels in the Total Tourist Product

      Property Ownership & Management:

      • Property Ownership
      • Property Operation & Maintenance Energy

      Finance & Accounts:

      • The Hotel Balance Sheet
      • Balance Sheet Ratios & Analysis
      • The Hotel Profit & Loss Statement
      • Profit & Loss Ratios & Analysis
      • Hotel Operating Profit
      • Balance Sheet & Profit & Loss Relationships
      • Liquidity Ratios

      The Small Hotel:

      • Products & Markets
      • Ownership & Finance
      • Organisation & Staffing
      • Accounting & Control
      • The Future of the Small Hotel

      Hotel Groups:

      • Advantages of Groups
      • Problems of Groups
      • Scope for Centralisation
      • A Concentrated Hotel Group
      • A Dispersed Hotel Group

      International Hotel Operations:

      • Products
      • Markets
      • Cost & Profit Ratios
      • Ownership & Finance
      • Organisation & General Approach
      • Numeracy & Statistics

        Main Topics of Study:Using a Calculator:

        • Approximations
        • Estimation
        • Degrees of Accuracy
        • The Keys of a Calculator
        • Standard Form

        Fractions:

        • Types of Fraction
        • Equivalent Fractions
        • Operations Involving Fractions
        • The Conversion Between Fractions & Decimal Fractions

        Ratio and Proportion:

        • Ratio
        • Division in a Given Ratio
        • Direct Proportion
        • Scale Diagrams & Models

        Measurement:

        • Metric and Imperial Units
        • Conversion Between Metric & Imperial Units

        Percentages:

        • Percentages
        • Finding a Percentage of an Amount
        • Increasing & Decreasing an Amount by a Given Percentage
        • Expressing One Quantity as a Percentage of Another

        Wages & Salaries:

        • Basic Pay
        • Overtime Rates
        • Commission
        • Piecework
        • Deductions from Pay

        Travel:

        • Foreign Currency
        • Time
        • Timetables

        Sampling, Surveys, Questionnaires:

        • Surveys
        • Censuses
        • Samples
        • Sampling Methods
        • Bias
        • Questionnaires
        • Pilot Surveys
        • Hypothesis Testing

        Classification & Tabulation of Data:

        • Tabulation
        • Classification of Data
        • Tally Charts
        • Frequency Tables

        Statistics on Display:

        • Pictorial Representation of Data
        • Pictograms
        • Bar Charts
        • Pie Charts
        • Line Graphs
        • Frequency Polygons
        • Drawing Inferences from Diagrams

        Averages & Range:

        • The Arithmetic Mean
        • The Mode
        • The Median
        • The Use of Mean, Mode & Median
        • The Mean & Median of a Frequency Distribution
        • Range

        Cumulative Frequency:

        • The Cumulative Frequency Curve (or Ogive)
        • The Median
        • The Interquartile Range
        • Percentiles

        Probability:

        • Introduction
        • Probability From Theory and Experiment
        • Simple Probabilities
        • Simple Laws of Addition
        • Possibility Space

        Networks & Decision Trees:

        • Networks
        • Decision Trees

        Algebra:

        • The Basics of Algebra
        • Indices
        • Brackets
        • Common Factors
        • Equations
        • Harder Equations
        • Trial & Improvement
        • Flow Diagrams
        • Sequences
        • Formulae

        Graphs:

        • Graphs & Curves
        • The Interpretation of Graphs
        • Graph Plotting
        • Conversion Graphs
        • Cartesian Coordinates
        • Straight Line Graphs
        • Gradients & Intercepts

        Geometrical Shapes:

        • Lines & Angles
        • Polygons
        • Circles & Angles
        • Tessellations
        • 2D
        • Representation of 3D Objects

        Mensuration:

        • Perimeters of Polygons
        • Area
        • The Circumference and Area of a Circle
        • Volume

        Time & Travel Graphs:

        • Distance-Time Graphs with Straight Lines
        • Distance-Time Graphs with Curves
        • Velocity-Time Graphs
        • Growth & Decay

        Further Algebra:

        • Simultaneous Equations
        • Inequalities
        • Removing Brackets
        • Rearranging Formulae
        • Retail Travel Operations

          Main topics of study:Package and Group Tours:

          • Introduction
          • Planning A Group Tour

          Short Breaks, Special Interest Holidays, Theme Parks, Holiday Centres, Accommodation and Theatre Reservations:

          • Short Breaks
          • Special Interest Holidays
          • Useful Addresses
          • National Parks
          • Skiing
          • Holiday Centres/Hotels
          • Accommodation
          • Theatre Reservations

          Coaching and Incoming Tourism:

          • Coaching
          • European Coach Holidays
          • Making a Reservation
          • Incoming Tourism

          Cruising:

          • Introduction
          • Passengers and Passenger Density
          • Factors in Cruise Costs
          • Some Nautical Terms
          • International River Cruise Destinations
          • Ocean, River and Canal Cruising
          • Client Information on Cruising
          • Cruising Areas

          Car Rental:

          • Benefits of Car Rental
          • Growth of Car Rental
          • Tariffs
          • Car Groups
          • Fuel Consumption
          • Car Rental Insurance
          • Organising Car Rental

          Ferry Services and Railways:

          • Ferry Services
          • Making the Reservation
          • Railways

          Airlines:

          • Introduction
          • IATA Traffic and Conference Areas
          • Most Logical Routings
          • Aircraft Types
          • Fear of Flying
          • Deep Vein Thrombosis
          • Seat Pitch
          • Charter Airlines
          • Organising an Itinerary
          • Time Differences and Elapsed Flying Time
          • Passports, Visas and Health Regulations
          • Special Services for Passengers
          • Airport Information
          • Stopover Holidays

          Technology:

          • Introduction
          • Understanding Systems
          • Travel Agency Systems
          • View Data
          • Global Distribution Systems
          • GDSs and e-Commerce

          The Internet:

          • Introduction
          • A Brief History
          • How the Internet Works
          • Getting Online
          • Tour Operators and the Internet
          • The Internet as a Marketing Tool
          • Travel Portals

          Insurance:

          • Holiday Insurance
          • What Is Included in a Travel Insurance Policy
          • Exclusions
          • Specialist Insurance – Pre-existing Illness, Dangerous Activities
          • E111 Coverage
          • Association of British Travel Agents (ABTA) Code of Conduct
          • Terminology Explained
          • Making a Claim
          • Information Required Before Issuing a Policy
          • Insurance Tips for Travel Agents

          Finance:

          • Introduction
          • How Travel Agents Earn Their Income
          • Operational Costs of an Independent Travel Agency
          • Security
          • Legal and Regulatory Requirements
          • Handling Cheques and Credit Cards
          • Cheques
          • Foreign Currency
          • Travellers’ Cheques
          • The Euro
          • Disposable Income

          Skills:

          • Skills Required to Work in a Travel Agency
          • Product Benefits for the Client
          • Using the Telephone
          • Sales Techniques in the Office
          • Identifying the Client’s Needs
          • Closing the Sale
          • After-sales Service
          • Client Relations
          • Time Management

          Handling Complaints:

          • Introduction
          • ABTA and Arbitration
          • Structure of Travel & Tourism

            Main topics of study:An Introduction to Tourism:

            • Defining Tourism
            • The Tourist Product
            • The Nature of a Tour
            • The Tourist Destination

            The History of Tourism: From Its Origins to the Age of Steam:

            • Introduction
            • Travel in the Middle Ages
            • Developments in Road Transport in the Seventeenth to Early Nineteenth Centuries
            • The Grand Tour
            • Political Hindrance to Travel
            • The Development of the Spas
            • The Rise of the Seaside Resort
            • The Conditions Favouring the Expansion of Travel in the Nineteenth Century
            • The Age of Steam
            • Other Late-nineteenth-century Developments

            Tourism in the Twentieth Century:

            • The First Fifty Years
            • Tourism Since World War II
            • Factors Influencing Changes in Tourism Demand

            The Economics of Tourism:

            • Introduction
            • The International Tourist Market
            • Britain’s Place in World Tourism
            • The Value of Economic Data
            • The Economic Impact of Tourism
            • Statistical Measurement of Tourism

            Tourist Motivation and Behaviour:

            • Introduction
            • The Tourist’s Needs and Wants
            • General and Specific Motivation
            • Motivators and Facilitators
            • Psychological and Sociological Factors Influencing Motivation
            • The Motivation of Business Travellers

            The Structure and Organisation of the Travel and Tourism Industry:

            • The Tourism Chain of Distribution
            • Common-interest Organisations
            • Integration in the Tourism Industry
            • Conglomerates and International Integration

            Passenger Transport: the Aviation Business:

            • Introduction
            • The Airline Business
            • The Organisation of Air Transport
            • Air Transport Regulation
            • Deregulation of Air Transport
            • The Economics of Airline Operation
            • The Marketing of Air Services

            Water-borne Passenger Transport:

            • Introduction
            • The Ocean Liners
            • Cruising
            • Ferry Services
            • Coastal and Inland Waterways Tourism
            • Seagoing Pleasure Craft

            Other Modes of Tourist Travel:

            • The Role of the Railways in Tourism
            • Coach Travel
            • The Private Car
            • Cycling and Tourism
            • Tourists on Foot

            The Hospitality Sector: Accommodation and Catering Services

            • Introduction
            • The Structure of the Accommodation Sector
            • The Nature of Demand for Accommodation Facilities
            • The Distribution of Accommodation
            • Environmental Issues

            Visitor Attractions and Visitor Management:

            • Introduction
            • Seaside Resorts
            • Spa Tourism
            • Urban Tourism
            • Rural Tourism
            • Purpose-built Attractions
            • Other Site Attractions
            • Cultural Tourism
            • Retail Shopping
            • Events

            Tour Operating:

            • The Role of the Tour Operator
            • The Specialised Roles of Tour Operators
            • The British Tour Operating Scene
            • The Nature of Tour Operating
            • Control Over Tour Operating
            • Planning, Marketing and Operating Package Tours
            • The Process of Negotiating
            • The Role of the Resort Representative
            • Pricing the Package Tour
            • The Tour Brochure
            • The Reservations System
            • The Distribution Network
            • The IT Revolution and its Impact on Tour Operating

            Travel Retailing:

            • Introduction
            • The Role of Travel Agents
            • Setting Up and Running a Travel Agency
            • Travel Agency Skills and Competences
            • Business Travel
            • Travel Agency Appointments
            • Profitability of Travel Agents

            Ancillary Tourism Services:

            • Introduction
            • Services to the Tourist
            • Services to the Supplier
            • Marketing Services

            The Structure and Role of Public Sector Tourism:

            • Introduction
            • The Nature of Government Involvement
            • Planning and Facilitating Tourism
            • Control and Supervision in Tourism
            • The Organisation of Public Sector Tourism
            • Public Sector Tourism in Britain
            • Functions of the Tourist Boards

            Tourism Design and Management:

            • Introduction
            • The Role of Design in Tourism
            • The Management of Tourism Sites

            The Social and Environmental Impact of Tourism:

            • Introduction
            • The Environmental Effects of Tourism
            • Planning for Control and Conservation
            • The Socio-cultural Effects of Tourism
            • Managing the Social Impact of Tourism
            • The Future of Tourism

Course structure

Characteristics of World Destinations

  • Main topics of study:Introduction to the Geography of Tourism:
    • Leisure, Recreation & Tourism
    • Geography & Tourism
    • Forms of Tourism

    The Geography of Demand for Tourism:

    • Leisure, Recreation & Tourism – A Basic Human Right?
    • The Demand for Tourism – Concepts & Definitions
    • Effective Demand
    • Suppressed Demand

    The Geography of Resources for Tourism:

    • Introduction
    • Resources for Tourism
    • Tourism Resources at the World Scale
    • Tourism Resources at the National Scale
    • Tourism Resources at the Local Scale

    Climate & Tourism:

    • Introduction
    • The World Climate Scene
    • Climate Elements & Tourism
    • World Climate
    • World Climate Zones

    The Geography of Transport for Travel & Tourism:

    • Introduction
    • Principles of Interaction
    • The Elements of Transport
    • Transport Costs & Pricing
    • Transport Modes, Routes & Networks
    • Air Transport
    • Surface Transport

    Introduction to the Geography of Europe:

    • Introduction
    • Physical Features
    • Cultural Features
    • Tourism Demand
    • Supply of Tourism
    • The Organisation of Tourism in Europe

    Introduction to the Geography of Britain:

    • Introduction
    • The Physical Setting of Tourism
    • Change in Postwar British Society
    • Demand for Tourism in British Form
    • British Resident’s Demand for Tourism
    • The Supply of Tourism in Britain

    The Tourism Geography of England & the Channel Islands:

    • The South
    • The South-West
    • East Anglia
    • The Midlands
    • The North
    • The Offshore Islands

    The Tourism Geography of Scotland, Wales & The Isle of Man:

    • Scotland
    • Wales

    The Tourism Geography of Ireland:

    • An Introduction
    • The Republic of Ireland
    • Northern Ireland

    Scandinavia:

    • Introduction
    • Denmark
    • Norway
    • Sweden
    • Finland
    • Iceland

    The Benelux Countries:

    • Introduction
    • The Netherlands
    • Belgium
    • Luxembourg

    Central Europe:

    • Introduction
    • Austria
    • Switzerland
    • Germany

    France:

    • Introduction
    • The Demand for Tourism in France
    • The Supply of Tourism in France
    • Tourism Organisation in France
    • Tourist Regions in France

    Spain & Portugal:

    • Introduction
    • Spain
    • Gibraltar
    • Portugal

    Italy:

    • Introduction
    • The Organisation & Supply of Tourism
    • Tourism Demand
    • Tourism Attractions & Resources

    Malta, Greece & Cyprus:

    • Introduction
    • Malta
    • Greece
    • Cyprus

    Eastern Europe & The CIS:

    • Introduction
    • Tourism Resources of Eastern Europe
    • The Czech Republic
    • Slovakia (The Slovak Republic)
    • Hungary
    • Poland
    • The Baltic States
    • The Balkan Countries
    • The Republics of the Former Yugoslavia
    • Albania
    • The Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS)

    The Middle East:

    • Introduction
    • Egypt
    • Israel
    • Jordan
    • Syria
    • Lebanon
    • Turkey
    • The Arbanian Peninsula
    • Iran & Iraq

    Africa & The Islands of the Indian Ocean:

    • Introduction
    • North Africa
    • East Africa
    • Southern Africa
    • The Islands of the Western Indian Ocean
    • West Africa
    • Central Africa
    • The Atlantic Islands

    South Asia:

    • Introduction
    • India
    • Pakistan
    • Bangladesh
    • Afghanistan
    • The Maldives
    • Sri Lanka
    • Nepal
    • Bhutan

    East Asia:

    • Introduction
    • South East Asia
    • The Far East

    North America:

    • Introduction
    • The United States
    • The Demand for Tourism
    • The Supply of Resources
    • Transport
    • Accommodation
    • The Regional Setting for Tourism
    • Canada
    • Tourism Resources
    • Transport
    • The Regional Setting for Tourism
    • Greenland (Kalaallit Nunaat)

    Latin America & The Caribbean:

    • Introduction
    • The Caribbean Islands
    • Mexico
    • Central America
    • South America

    Australasia:

    • Introduction
    • Australia
    • New Zealand
    • The Pacific Islands
    • Antarctica

      Fundamentals of the Hotel & Catering Industry

      Main topics of study:Staying Away from Home:

      • The Importance of Hotels
      • Travel & Hotels
      • Two Centuries of Hotel-keeping
      • Hotels in the Total Accommodation Market
      • Hotel Location
      • Types of Hotels

      Hotel Products & Markets:

      • The Hotel as a Total Market Concept
      • Hotel Facilities & Services as Products
      • Hotel Accommodation Markets
      • Hotel Catering Markets
      • Hotel Demand Generating Sources
      • Hotel Market Areas
      • Hotel Market Segmentation
      • Buying & Paying for Hotel Services
      • Hotel Marketing Orientation

      Hotel Policies, Philosophies & Strategies:

      • Objectives & Policies
      • General & Sectional Policies
      • Policy Formulation, Communication & Review
      • Hotel Philosophies
      • Hotel Plans & Strategies
      • The Framework of Hotel Management

      Rooms & Beds:

      • Room Sales
      • Guest Accounts
      • Mail & Other Guest Services
      • Uniformed Services
      • Hotel Housekeeping
      • Organisation & Staffing
      • Accounting & Control

      Food & Drink:

      • The Food Cycle
      • The Beverage Cycle
      • Hotel Restaurants
      • Hotel Bars
      • Room Service
      • Functions
      • Food & Beverage Support Services
      • Organisation & Staffing
      • Accounting & Control

      Miscellaneous Guest Services:

      • Guest Telephones
      • Guest Laundry
      • Rentals & Concessions – Other Income
      • Accounting & Control

      Hotel Organisation:

      • Rooms
      • Food & Beverages
      • Miscellaneous Guest Services
      • Hotel Support Services
      • The Management Structure
      • Organisational Structure of a Large Hotel
      • Accounting & Control

      Hotel Staffing:

      • Determinants of Hotel Staffing
      • Numbers & Payroll
      • Hotel Products & Staffing
      • Organisation of the Personnel Function
      • Organisation of Training
      • Functions of the Training Division

      Productivity in Hotels:

      • Measures of Labour Productivity
      • Physical Measures
      • Financial Measures – Sales & Payroll
      • Physical/Financial Measures – Sales Per Employee
      • Productivity Measures – Value Added Approach
      • Some Ways to Higher Productivity
      • Productivity Standards
      • Computers in Hotels

      Marketing:

      • From Product to Sales to Marketing
      • The Marketing Concept
      • Special Features of Hotel Marketing
      • The Marketing Cycle
      • Marketing Resources
      • Hotels in the Total Tourist Product

      Property Ownership & Management:

      • Property Ownership
      • Property Operation & Maintenance Energy

      Finance & Accounts:

      • The Hotel Balance Sheet
      • Balance Sheet Ratios & Analysis
      • The Hotel Profit & Loss Statement
      • Profit & Loss Ratios & Analysis
      • Hotel Operating Profit
      • Balance Sheet & Profit & Loss Relationships
      • Liquidity Ratios

      The Small Hotel:

      • Products & Markets
      • Ownership & Finance
      • Organisation & Staffing
      • Accounting & Control
      • The Future of the Small Hotel

      Hotel Groups:

      • Advantages of Groups
      • Problems of Groups
      • Scope for Centralisation
      • A Concentrated Hotel Group
      • A Dispersed Hotel Group

      International Hotel Operations:

      • Products
      • Markets
      • Cost & Profit Ratios
      • Ownership & Finance
      • Organisation & General Approach
      • Numeracy & Statistics

        Main Topics of Study:Using a Calculator:

        • Approximations
        • Estimation
        • Degrees of Accuracy
        • The Keys of a Calculator
        • Standard Form

        Fractions:

        • Types of Fraction
        • Equivalent Fractions
        • Operations Involving Fractions
        • The Conversion Between Fractions & Decimal Fractions

        Ratio and Proportion:

        • Ratio
        • Division in a Given Ratio
        • Direct Proportion
        • Scale Diagrams & Models

        Measurement:

        • Metric and Imperial Units
        • Conversion Between Metric & Imperial Units

        Percentages:

        • Percentages
        • Finding a Percentage of an Amount
        • Increasing & Decreasing an Amount by a Given Percentage
        • Expressing One Quantity as a Percentage of Another

        Wages & Salaries:

        • Basic Pay
        • Overtime Rates
        • Commission
        • Piecework
        • Deductions from Pay

        Travel:

        • Foreign Currency
        • Time
        • Timetables

        Sampling, Surveys, Questionnaires:

        • Surveys
        • Censuses
        • Samples
        • Sampling Methods
        • Bias
        • Questionnaires
        • Pilot Surveys
        • Hypothesis Testing

        Classification & Tabulation of Data:

        • Tabulation
        • Classification of Data
        • Tally Charts
        • Frequency Tables

        Statistics on Display:

        • Pictorial Representation of Data
        • Pictograms
        • Bar Charts
        • Pie Charts
        • Line Graphs
        • Frequency Polygons
        • Drawing Inferences from Diagrams

        Averages & Range:

        • The Arithmetic Mean
        • The Mode
        • The Median
        • The Use of Mean, Mode & Median
        • The Mean & Median of a Frequency Distribution
        • Range

        Cumulative Frequency:

        • The Cumulative Frequency Curve (or Ogive)
        • The Median
        • The Interquartile Range
        • Percentiles

        Probability:

        • Introduction
        • Probability From Theory and Experiment
        • Simple Probabilities
        • Simple Laws of Addition
        • Possibility Space

        Networks & Decision Trees:

        • Networks
        • Decision Trees

        Algebra:

        • The Basics of Algebra
        • Indices
        • Brackets
        • Common Factors
        • Equations
        • Harder Equations
        • Trial & Improvement
        • Flow Diagrams
        • Sequences
        • Formulae

        Graphs:

        • Graphs & Curves
        • The Interpretation of Graphs
        • Graph Plotting
        • Conversion Graphs
        • Cartesian Coordinates
        • Straight Line Graphs
        • Gradients & Intercepts

        Geometrical Shapes:

        • Lines & Angles
        • Polygons
        • Circles & Angles
        • Tessellations
        • 2D
        • Representation of 3D Objects

        Mensuration:

        • Perimeters of Polygons
        • Area
        • The Circumference and Area of a Circle
        • Volume

        Time & Travel Graphs:

        • Distance-Time Graphs with Straight Lines
        • Distance-Time Graphs with Curves
        • Velocity-Time Graphs
        • Growth & Decay

        Further Algebra:

        • Simultaneous Equations
        • Inequalities
        • Removing Brackets
        • Rearranging Formulae
        • Retail Travel Operations

          Main topics of study:Package and Group Tours:

          • Introduction
          • Planning A Group Tour

          Short Breaks, Special Interest Holidays, Theme Parks, Holiday Centres, Accommodation and Theatre Reservations:

          • Short Breaks
          • Special Interest Holidays
          • Useful Addresses
          • National Parks
          • Skiing
          • Holiday Centres/Hotels
          • Accommodation
          • Theatre Reservations

          Coaching and Incoming Tourism:

          • Coaching
          • European Coach Holidays
          • Making a Reservation
          • Incoming Tourism

          Cruising:

          • Introduction
          • Passengers and Passenger Density
          • Factors in Cruise Costs
          • Some Nautical Terms
          • International River Cruise Destinations
          • Ocean, River and Canal Cruising
          • Client Information on Cruising
          • Cruising Areas

          Car Rental:

          • Benefits of Car Rental
          • Growth of Car Rental
          • Tariffs
          • Car Groups
          • Fuel Consumption
          • Car Rental Insurance
          • Organising Car Rental

          Ferry Services and Railways:

          • Ferry Services
          • Making the Reservation
          • Railways

          Airlines:

          • Introduction
          • IATA Traffic and Conference Areas
          • Most Logical Routings
          • Aircraft Types
          • Fear of Flying
          • Deep Vein Thrombosis
          • Seat Pitch
          • Charter Airlines
          • Organising an Itinerary
          • Time Differences and Elapsed Flying Time
          • Passports, Visas and Health Regulations
          • Special Services for Passengers
          • Airport Information
          • Stopover Holidays

          Technology:

          • Introduction
          • Understanding Systems
          • Travel Agency Systems
          • View Data
          • Global Distribution Systems
          • GDSs and e-Commerce

          The Internet:

          • Introduction
          • A Brief History
          • How the Internet Works
          • Getting Online
          • Tour Operators and the Internet
          • The Internet as a Marketing Tool
          • Travel Portals

          Insurance:

          • Holiday Insurance
          • What Is Included in a Travel Insurance Policy
          • Exclusions
          • Specialist Insurance – Pre-existing Illness, Dangerous Activities
          • E111 Coverage
          • Association of British Travel Agents (ABTA) Code of Conduct
          • Terminology Explained
          • Making a Claim
          • Information Required Before Issuing a Policy
          • Insurance Tips for Travel Agents

          Finance:

          • Introduction
          • How Travel Agents Earn Their Income
          • Operational Costs of an Independent Travel Agency
          • Security
          • Legal and Regulatory Requirements
          • Handling Cheques and Credit Cards
          • Cheques
          • Foreign Currency
          • Travellers’ Cheques
          • The Euro
          • Disposable Income

          Skills:

          • Skills Required to Work in a Travel Agency
          • Product Benefits for the Client
          • Using the Telephone
          • Sales Techniques in the Office
          • Identifying the Client’s Needs
          • Closing the Sale
          • After-sales Service
          • Client Relations
          • Time Management

          Handling Complaints:

          • Introduction
          • ABTA and Arbitration
          • Structure of Travel & Tourism

            Main topics of study:An Introduction to Tourism:

            • Defining Tourism
            • The Tourist Product
            • The Nature of a Tour
            • The Tourist Destination

            The History of Tourism: From Its Origins to the Age of Steam:

            • Introduction
            • Travel in the Middle Ages
            • Developments in Road Transport in the Seventeenth to Early Nineteenth Centuries
            • The Grand Tour
            • Political Hindrance to Travel
            • The Development of the Spas
            • The Rise of the Seaside Resort
            • The Conditions Favouring the Expansion of Travel in the Nineteenth Century
            • The Age of Steam
            • Other Late-nineteenth-century Developments

            Tourism in the Twentieth Century:

            • The First Fifty Years
            • Tourism Since World War II
            • Factors Influencing Changes in Tourism Demand

            The Economics of Tourism:

            • Introduction
            • The International Tourist Market
            • Britain’s Place in World Tourism
            • The Value of Economic Data
            • The Economic Impact of Tourism
            • Statistical Measurement of Tourism

            Tourist Motivation and Behaviour:

            • Introduction
            • The Tourist’s Needs and Wants
            • General and Specific Motivation
            • Motivators and Facilitators
            • Psychological and Sociological Factors Influencing Motivation
            • The Motivation of Business Travellers

            The Structure and Organisation of the Travel and Tourism Industry:

            • The Tourism Chain of Distribution
            • Common-interest Organisations
            • Integration in the Tourism Industry
            • Conglomerates and International Integration

            Passenger Transport: the Aviation Business:

            • Introduction
            • The Airline Business
            • The Organisation of Air Transport
            • Air Transport Regulation
            • Deregulation of Air Transport
            • The Economics of Airline Operation
            • The Marketing of Air Services

            Water-borne Passenger Transport:

            • Introduction
            • The Ocean Liners
            • Cruising
            • Ferry Services
            • Coastal and Inland Waterways Tourism
            • Seagoing Pleasure Craft

            Other Modes of Tourist Travel:

            • The Role of the Railways in Tourism
            • Coach Travel
            • The Private Car
            • Cycling and Tourism
            • Tourists on Foot

            The Hospitality Sector: Accommodation and Catering Services

            • Introduction
            • The Structure of the Accommodation Sector
            • The Nature of Demand for Accommodation Facilities
            • The Distribution of Accommodation
            • Environmental Issues

            Visitor Attractions and Visitor Management:

            • Introduction
            • Seaside Resorts
            • Spa Tourism
            • Urban Tourism
            • Rural Tourism
            • Purpose-built Attractions
            • Other Site Attractions
            • Cultural Tourism
            • Retail Shopping
            • Events

            Tour Operating:

            • The Role of the Tour Operator
            • The Specialised Roles of Tour Operators
            • The British Tour Operating Scene
            • The Nature of Tour Operating
            • Control Over Tour Operating
            • Planning, Marketing and Operating Package Tours
            • The Process of Negotiating
            • The Role of the Resort Representative
            • Pricing the Package Tour
            • The Tour Brochure
            • The Reservations System
            • The Distribution Network
            • The IT Revolution and its Impact on Tour Operating

            Travel Retailing:

            • Introduction
            • The Role of Travel Agents
            • Setting Up and Running a Travel Agency
            • Travel Agency Skills and Competences
            • Business Travel
            • Travel Agency Appointments
            • Profitability of Travel Agents

            Ancillary Tourism Services:

            • Introduction
            • Services to the Tourist
            • Services to the Supplier
            • Marketing Services

            The Structure and Role of Public Sector Tourism:

            • Introduction
            • The Nature of Government Involvement
            • Planning and Facilitating Tourism
            • Control and Supervision in Tourism
            • The Organisation of Public Sector Tourism
            • Public Sector Tourism in Britain
            • Functions of the Tourist Boards

            Tourism Design and Management:

            • Introduction
            • The Role of Design in Tourism
            • The Management of Tourism Sites

            The Social and Environmental Impact of Tourism:

            • Introduction
            • The Environmental Effects of Tourism
            • Planning for Control and Conservation
            • The Socio-cultural Effects of Tourism
            • Managing the Social Impact of Tourism
            • The Future of Tourism